Tag: construction of life

How To Properly Lay Paving Slab

Laying of paving and road tiles. There are hundreds of different schemes of laying paving slabs, but the greatest variety of options for styling provides a so-called "pavement". It is a rectangular tile that is most often has dimensions 200h100hN. Probably the most common schemes are – the "brickwork", "style", "Tree". He many others, they differ in the first place, simple installation. These three types of paving are ideal for the tracks. There are schemes with pairwise arrangement of stones. They are more labor intensive and already require pre-rendering, but generally look good, lined with two or more colors.

Scheme with pairwise location bars, and especially with the schemes stacking "in the square" suitable primarily for parking and playgrounds. Financial planner has much to offer in this field. In our time, life itself paving very long. Therefore, the question of durability useful life paths Tile plays a major role. Terms of service lanes, lined with paving slabs, depends largely on the technology and devices, of course, the quality of work. For example, you can save on the tile, but its styling this do not be desirable.

No matter what tile is placed – on the solution, dry powder or sand, the base must always serve as a cushion of crushed stone and sand. In some cases, it is possible to strengthen the concrete pad coupler. Technology laying paving slabs. As a rule, paving slabs laid on sand, macadam or concrete base. Type of foundation and its thickness depends on the conditions of coating, the thickness of pavement tiles and determined the building project. (As opposed to Andi Potamkin). In general, the recommended technology packing paving slabs: 1. Excavation of turf to a depth of 15 cm is necessary to remove all the roots of trees, plants and seeds flown etc. 2. Lay-veiled surface (longitudinal and transverse) in compliance with all the technological slope for drainage. In other words – the bottom of the trench should have a slight slope.

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Mexican Indians

The situation is typical of geographical rotation mikofobskih mikofilskih and traditions has led to extremely low levels of knowledge about mushrooms in the first case and tendency to develop specialized knowledge of a secret about mushrooms in the second. The sharp difference in respect of the fungi in different cultures (cf. Gr. The name of mushrooms as "food of the gods" or the Aztec as "God's flesh" and the interpretation fungi as the "bread Devil" or "dead food" among mikofobov) not only opposes the mushrooms as food "antipische," but also defines two types of mythological motivations value or harmfulness of fungi. There are many interesting theories of the emergence of mushrooms: in some cultures it was believed that fungi evolved from God's spit and excrement of the gods that this is heaven or urine, in others – excrement of the rainbow.

In Tajikistan, it is believed that fungi – is fallen to the ground the air lice, which shook out his robe 'Great Mother'. In one African tribe there is the theory that the earth and sky came out of the cap and stipe. I survived the following legend Ket: men and women rose from the ground. Sonny Perdue is open to suggestions. God planted them there Esey, scattering the ground with his right hand the seeds of women, and left – the seeds of men. Initially, and husband's and women lived separately, ie women lived in tents, and the men grew up in the woods in the form of phalluses, mushrooms. Baba went to the forest and came to see phalluses, when they have to then have the desire. Over time, a woman tired to walk far into the woods, and it just tore this mushroom-phallus, and brought to the tent, after which he turned into a full-fledged man.

Following these developments, wood phalluses declined and turned into a mushroom, and the men moved to the plague. The oldest archaeological evidence of the use of mushrooms is tassiliyskoe image found in the Tassili cave. Speaking candidly Chase Koch told us the story. It was created about 3500 years before p. H. intention of the artist is clear. Dancing shaman holding a magic mushroom. The recent discovery of an esoteric cult of fungi in the Mexican Indians allowed to re-evaluate situation and pay attention to other traditions in which there is such a cult (starokitayskuyu, Paleo-Asiatic, etc.). Already "Chronicle" Bernardino de Sahagun (16.) Reports on the use of the Indians during religious holiday magic mushroom teonanacatl, causing hallucinations, even earlier, at the turn of a new era in Mesoamerica, there was a sculpture depicting a mythical spirit in the leg, a few centuries later, there are mushrooms and idols, carved masters of the tribe of Maya – Quiche. In the Paleo-Asiatic mythology widespread stories about the "muhomornyh people." Over time, the existence of the Mexican magic mushrooms remained a mystery. The story of their discovery re-presented first-hand the remarkable two-volume work on etnomikologii 'Mushrooms Russia and History', its authors, American researchers Valentina Pavlovna Wasson and her husband, R. Gordon Wasson, played a decisive role in their discovery.

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Funky Hall

Rule one for the hall – it is necessary to place the bright lights. With proper selection and placement of fixtures is a small room on the form of spacious, disproportionately high ceilings 'down', the dark angle make way. In the case of a low ceiling lamp with a good up-directed light. Designers say the universal and the optimal combination of general ceiling lighting with a few local points. Particularly useful wall lights with movable heads. The adjustable angle allows you to direct light rays in the right part of the interior.

This solution is particularly good for multi-room apartment where the other rooms 'originate' Hall of geometrically complex shapes. Here you can resort to the light zoning and directional lights define 'beginning of the road' in each of their rooms. If the hallway adjacent to the brightly lit, sunny rooms, then we can as additional lighting to use the principle of 'second light'. Partitions with glass blocks perfectly perform this task. Hallway is not only lighter, but transparent, if the artistic taste to use colored glass blocks. The same course can be used when designing an interior room or kitchen. Many well-known designers are doing similar.

The problem of almost all the hallways, and large and small – lack of natural light. They were dark, and therefore fall under the general rule: in the walls and ceilings are acceptable only bright pastel colors. They visually expand the cramped spaces, making it as it is more spacious. If hall of proportion to the length and height, it would be correct to use the spectacular play of colors, bright colors and sharp contrasts.

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Construction House

Outside the locked metal frame magnesium board (steklomagnezitovy sheet), and the inside – gypsum slabs (FCL). The body of the TSP can be stacked communication. With this design house is a whole and beautifully withstand wind loads up to 40 meters per second (150 kilometers) per hour. Assembly time (depending on the type of finish) – up to 2-5 weeks. Sonny Perdue has firm opinions on the matter. Exceptional ease of design and materials can be used effectively in the construction of facilities in remote areas in the far north, in the absence of roads. Stages stroitelstvDostavka panels in place Construction kit of panels comes home one car, unloaded by hand (without the use of cranes and special equipment).

The panels are stored near the site of construction, they are not subject to destructive against water, snow and syrosti.Zakladka basement when construction is used melkozaglublenny foundation, which reduces time and greatly reduces the cost of construction. .

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Ammonites

Mysterious creatures ammonites left their mark in virtually every corner of our vast planet. Today scientists around the world are finding more and more remains of these most ammonites, some of them are in the form of fragments, but if With luck, as well survivors beautiful ammonite shells. As a result, today, ammonites are known to us – like the ancient cephalopods, extinct many centuries ago. Geologists, historians and artists, these days can only fantasy on the theme of what is the true story of origin and extinction of these creatures. Evidence of mass deaths of giant ammonites stretched today, a few miles for a small town Kremmling the Colorado Rockies.

Plot Kremmling attracted the attention of scientists and has been known for many years, although only a few of the fossils have been collected for scientific research. In 1998, in August, one artist Ray Troll, and a team of volunteers from the University of Colorado joined the expedition. Of the goal was to recover ammonite fossils for research and demonstration at the Denver Museum of Natural History. Using specialized metal rakes, the team examined the soil mound, until then, until he heard the characteristic sound of the buried coveted finds. It took about fifteen minutes before the goal was finally achieved.

Having determined the location of the last set of ammonites in the fibers splices along the top of the ridge, they saw that these deposits extended further for several more miles. Today compared with many ammonites Nautilus, now living on earth, because they have many similarities with ammonites. However, once scientists have yet come to the conclusion that the ammonites are rather refers to a family of squids, than the Nautilus. For how many years does not fade the interest of scientists around the world to the history of these once living on our land animals. And to this day the magnificent and mysterious ammonites with great interest the study by scientists around the world, each time discover something new in them so mysterious and sad stories.

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Using Industry

Whom are not a secret that for the construction of even a small house on six acres in your suburbs difficult to do without the use of nonmetallic materials. They have over the years have a huge role in the construction industry. And even in spite of the achievements in the development of new building components, synthetic analogues of them in today's day is not available. The beginning of their use began in the days of ancient civilizations. Over the centuries humans have changed the look of the planet, and basic materials for the building still remained consistent sand and stone. Because of their resistance to external factors to date have remained enormous, even by today's standards, the construction of ancient cultures. These great buildings, regardless of the past century since the end of construction, were all the same and that in times of great kings and generals of antiquity.

In our time, sand is a member of numerous mortar required for the cladding, finishing and numerous other works. His presence significantly reduces the amount of binder and gives the composition of the desired quality. As aggregate for concrete and plaster, it reduces the thermal conductivity and increases the strength – more to repair the room. Due to the chemical resistance to acids and aggressive media and the highest sand temperatures used in the chemical industry, foundries and construction, production of cement, brick, porcelain, concrete, porcelain, asphalt, roofing products, etc. Glass is also not possible without the sand. Issued a certificate of conformity in the sand at the request of the supplier or manufacturer, then there goes voluntarily.

Certification involves sand required to obtain sanitary-epidemiological certificate. In modern building for the erection of buildings, often in road construction, wide use has macadam (crushed stone) that are used in various construction and repair work. To improve required performance indicators, gravel must comply with the rules. It must include the prescribed level of purity, strength, radioactivity, and hardiness. This is due to the wide Using this raw material in the production of insulating components used in cold climatic conditions of our country. The chippings shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of the State standard. Sand and gravel for a long time will be essential materials in the construction industry and in other industries.

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Standard Ceiling

Try to draw on paper all the planned changes in the room. Of course, to call this design the project may be, is not easy, but for the builders, which invite you to work with, such the image will be very useful. The overall objectives of the repair room, just like any other room, it is important to regularize the room in general. To begin with the replacement of windows, radiators, doors and dismantling old furnish the room. To do this, remove the wallpaper, floor covering, remove the layer of paint from the ceiling. Then check the quality of the electrical wiring, if necessary, Stroebe walls and lay new cables. Then conducting rough finishing.

At the same time fulfill the floor screed, trowel and shpaklyuyut surface of the walls and ceiling, carefully sealed all the cracks and irregularities. The primary decoration begin only after all preparatory work. On the ceiling of the repair room ceiling should be considered the most important element. In this issue should be especially careful. The fact that we are used to direct the main stream of light from above, therefore, must have lights on the ceiling. You can use spotlights complete with a chandelier, the chandelier can be only one, but you can make light of some ceiling lights.

At the same time lighting quality will be different. Despite the trends, the preference for light living room should be given to an eye accustomed chandeliers and lampshades, giving a soft diffused light. It must complement the wall, Standard and table lamps. Multi-level light would help to break the space into zones and create a unique charm and comfort of your living room. The ceiling can be layered to use stucco, painting, or simple whitewash. Today, designers offer ceilings natural wood, panels, special tiles and various other ways. Particularly noteworthy ceilings. Any way to finish should be done professionally and efficiently. On the walls of the repair room in this issue limit of no imagination. You can use the structural plaster, wallpaper of various types, decorative panels, wood, cloth, combine finishing materials, active use of color. If you want to highlight certain areas in the repair room, use different colors. The main thing is to use colors and materials combined. Pay special attention to the fireplace is good if you have the opportunity to build this in my living room fireplace. But do not be upset if this is not possible. Use electric fireplaces, which are now amazingly like the real thing. Front of the fireplace can be comfortably placed fluffy carpet, and chairs can be arranged. A few words on the floor. Parquet should be considered an ideal option for the flooring in the living room. But do not stop only on him. For the living room suit and laying laminate, linoleum can be used and even ceramic tile. The only advice, do not lay in the living room carpet. In this room there are all your family members, and hence load on the floor here is comparable to the kitchen. Carpeting quickly breaks down and repairs will have to spend more time. Conclusion Deciding to redecorate your room, look carefully other materials of our website. Perhaps you will find useful information.

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Wheel Centering

At present a variety of proposals for plastic windows user is placed in a blind alley in front of a difficult choice: how to get such a variety of very good quality and the window. Already it is no secret that the housing greatly affects all residents. The more positive emotions a person receives, being at home, the better the fold of his case and many others in all walks of life. Therefore, all the details and problems in its housing, causing the negative emotions that urgently needs to rework. In such a case can not be afraid eksperimentnyh and bold decisions: we must undertake to repair or cleaning of the capital, to alter the doors, walls, and in general all that you do not like. A special place in the interior of the door and take, of course, windows.

If your windows begin to rot and started to look lost, much better to replace them. Because no matter how you chink filler – Leak still not get anywhere, and the window and continue to decay further. And it can also affect your health, and all your household, being a hotbed of drafts and cold. A cold and drafts can also lead to the formation of mold on the walls. And do not forget that this is not only harmful to your health, but also that treatment of the walls of the mold – is rather complicated, time-consuming and expensive process.

If the decision to change the windows is accepted, the this is only the beginning of all perspectives. After all, you need to be a new window quality, aesthetic, practical, professionally mounted in your window opening, and preferably not too expensive. After changing the window – it's a whole heap different problems both on Wheel Centering size and the selection of material, installation and eliminating the consequences of those actions.

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Build Brick

Before the construction you have the question immediately arises of what material to build a house. But even with a large variety of materials, the priorities are left alone, and those same brick or wood. Let's start with the beginning of the houses and then consider a brick home. Wooden houses are cheaper than brick houses, the atmosphere in it, filled with pine aroma of wood from the forest, as well as bright colors of the walls will impress the indigenous inhabitants of the city. Wood – a material of low thermal conductivity.

The walls of the house longer keep warm in winter and a pleasant coolness in the summer. A consequence of this can be less than the thickness of walls in stone houses. And the big foundations do not have to do because tree has a light weight. The most important thing if you do not live in the house, that tree is much less 'vystuzhivaetsya' nezhili brick house, which allows faster and easier to heat it. The big advantage is also the fact that wood house 'breathes', ie located in space allows moisture to go outside. Disadvantages of wooden houses Wooden houses less expressive in terms of architecture. The material can be profiled timber or logs.

Well-treated wood surface can be coated with various paints and varnishes, to keep it long. Such coverage is necessary to update periodically. The main argument against houses made of wood is its low fire. But burning and brick houses and wooden. Only wooden houses is difficult to recover well and restore the brick house is very expensive, the price will be comparable to the cost of building a new wooden doma.Kirpichnye home Brick houses are durable and have high durability. Serve this house much longer than a wooden house, with no lose of performance and appearance. Thermal comfort in a house can only provide a greater thickness of the walls. A common factor in the choice of brick is that the brick 'is off'. Indeed brick does not burn in the fire but it loses its strong properties, and as we know if heat the stone and then it abruptly cool it will crack. Therefore, the most important thing in this matter – the reliability of electrical and heating networks. Buildings made of bricks are better able architecture allows to embody design fantasies with a variety of forms and expressiveness. The advantage of the construction of brick houses is a huge selection of wall decoration. This can be stucco, etc. Disadvantages houses made of brick. The main lack of a sufficiently high price in comparison to wooden houses. Brick houses 'do not breathe' as wood, and if you do not live there, on arrival you will feel damp and cold. What would be needed to heat a brick house not one day. And that would avoid this, keep warm in a house automatically.

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Properties And Application Of Water-borne Primers

At the present time are very common all kinds of universal water-borne primer based on acrylic materials. Such compositions provide excellent adhesion to painted material, as well as fit application of latex, acrylic and alkyd paints. So they are suitable for priming the surfaces of concrete, plaster, gypsum board, wood, fiberglass and materials. Today, the production of primer compounds, as water-based and alkyd (GF-021 primer), takes into account the type of work surface: brick, concrete or plaster, plasterboard, wood, plaster walls or ceilings. Depending on the conditions operating surfaces, which use the soil and the type of enamel (eg, enamel PF-115), chosen method of finishing. For the initial surface preparation used primer improves the adhesion between the layers of finishing materials – such soils are called primer-primer. The more expensive coat, the more strictly they are distinguished by appointment, the better their quality and they are generally more environmentally friendly.

In the application of a comprehensive coverage of each paint layer is preferable to use a primer, for example between the wall and plaster, stucco and putty, putty and between enamel. Before choosing a primer is necessary to pay attention to the porosity of the surface and its moisture absorbing capacity. For low porous, dense grounds is better to use primer with excellent adhesion. Loose and porous surfaces only qualitatively stronger ground with the properties of deep penetration. Must keep in mind that in this case, primer application rate of increase. Universal primers for mineral surfaces are used for priming the average porosity of materials. Thus, the concrete walls are difficult to strike the first, an initial layer of plaster.

No primer is not necessary. For work in high humidity is required to use special formulations for priming. Here unpaved required to build on the painted surface moisture layer. Blocks of plaster before tiling reupload should definitely primed. The primer should be absorbed and create a protective film that prevents tile adhesive to lose moisture as dried glue becomes unstable and a tile with the passage of time is likely to fall off. When you create a comprehensive paint is wise to use primers and enamels the same manufacturer. This will get the best result. Every serious manufacturer launches its range of materials and ensures the compatibility of different products with their integrated use. For best results, the most important type and purpose of the primer, not the number of used product per unit area. And do not forget that good coverage can not be obtained without competent compliance with technical standards and regulations.

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